Title: CIL II(2).5, – Lex Ursonensis, bronze tablets with municipal law on the foundation of Colonia Iulia Genetiva at Urso. Author: Center for Epigraphical. The Caesarian lex Ursonensis, the founding charter of a Hispanic colony, is one of the few documents attesting to attempts at systematic thinking about religion. FORWARD. This charter, known officially as the Law of Colonia Genetiva Julia, was apparently drafted in outline by Julius Caesar, with later marginal.
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T his charter, known officially as the Law of Colonia Genetiva Julia, was apparently drafted in outline by Julius Caesar, with later marginal corrections or pex from time to time. This history accounts for repetitions, redundant phrases, disorderly arrangement, and general lack of finish in the law as it has descended to us. Although much has been lost, this charter for the Spanish settlement of Urso is more complete than any other such document and gives some clue to Caesar’s political thought at the time of his death If anything, he was conservative.
The people seem to have had little significance in the government, except as an electoral body, and all legislation was vested in the Senate.
There is no mention of any veto power, and the officials are duumvirs, aediles, augurs, and priests. Thus the constitution seems to be closely patterned after that of early republican Rome.
The four bronze tablets containing the inscription ursonnsis found near Osuna, the ancient Urso, Spain, in and In the case of any person being commanded to lay hand on the said defendant: The surety shall be a man of substance at the discretion of the duumvir or other judicial authority.
If ursonendis defendant fails to offer a surety or to obey the judgment of the court ursoneniss said person shall lead him off. He shall keep him in chains according to the ursonensix law. In the case of any person resisting by force: In respect to all duumvirs: In respect to the aediles in the said colony: In this number they shall employ persons who are colonists of the said colony.
The said duumvirs and the said aediles, so long as they hold their magistracy, shall have the right and the power to use the toga praetexta, wax torches, and tapers. As respecting clerks, lictors, aides, summoners, flutists, soothsayers, and criers employed by each of the same ursoneneis the said persons, during the year in which they perform such services, shall have exemption from military service. And no person, during the year in llex they perform such services for magistrates, shall make any such person a soldier against his will, or order him to be so made, or use compulsion, or administer the oath, or order such oath to be administered, or bind such person, or order such person to be bound by the military oath, except on occasion of sudden military alarms in Italy or in Gaul.
The following shall be the rate of pay for such persons as are apparitors to the duumvirs: It shall ursonensiz lawful for the said persons to receive the aforesaid sums without prejudice to themselves. The duumvirs first appointed to hold office till December 31 shall have, each severally, the same number of attendants which is allowed by this law.
And the said attendants shall receive not less than that amount of pay, which would be properly paid for one fourth part of the year, and the total pay received shall be proportionate to the duration of their service; and that amount it shall be lawful for them to receive without prejudice to themselves.
All duumvirs holding office after the establishment of the colony shall bring, within ten days next following the commencement of their magistracy, before the decurions, when not llex than two thirds are present, the question as to the dates and the number of festal days, the sacrifices ursonesis be publicly performed, and the persons to perform such sacrifices. Whatever a majority of the decurions present at such meeting decree or determine concerning lez said matters, it shall be lawful ursonenais valid, and such sacrifices and such festal days shall be observed in the said colony.
Respecting any money paid into the common fund under the category of fines in connection with taxes belonging to the colony Genetiva Julia: And the duumvirs without prejudice to themselves shall give and attribute the said money for such sacrifices as are performed in the name of the colonists in the colony or any other place; and they shall have the right and the power so to do.
And it shall be lawful for the person to whom the said money is given to receive the same without prejudice to himself. Respecting pontiffs and augurs created from the colony Genetiva by Gaius Caesar or by the person who by his command establishes the colony: And the said pontiffs and augurs, having places in their several colleges, and also their children, shall have exemption from military service and from public duties solemnly guaranteed, in ursonenais wise as a pontiff in Rome has or shall have the same, and all their military campaigns shall be accounted as discharged.
Respecting the auspices and the matters appertaining to the same: And the same pontiffs and augurs shall have the right and the power to use the toga praetexta at all games publicly celebrated by magistrates and at public sacrifices of the colony Genetiva Julia performed by themselves; and the said pontiffs and augurs shall have the right and the power to ursonensiz among the decurions, when they witness the games and the gladiatorial ursonenzis.
All pontiffs and all augurs of the ursoneensis Genetiva Julia, elected or coopted, after the issuance of this law, in accordance with this law into the colleges of pontiffs or augurs to fill the place of persons deceased or condemned, shall have their places as pontiffs and augurs in such colleges within the colony Julia, with all the rights appertaining to pontiffs and augurs in every colony.
No person shall be received or elected in place of another or coopted usonensis the college of pontiffs except at a time when there are or shall be less than three pontiffs belonging to the colony Genetiva.
Additional Inscription 2 : Lex Ursonensis
Nor shall any person be elected in place of another or coopted into the college of Augurs, except at a time when there are less than three augurs belonging to the colony Genetiva Julia. The duumvirs or the prefect shall conduct and notify the elections of the pontiffs and augurs provided by this law in like manner as by this law it is proper for the duumvirs to be elected, created, or replaced.
The duumvirs first appointed after the establishment of the colony, during their magistracy, and future duumvirs in the colony Julia, within sixty days next following the commencement of their office, shall propose to the decurions, when not less than twenty are present, that the money payable in accordance with the conditions of lease to the contractor or contractors, who have purchased the contract to supply all things requisite for sacrifices and religious acts, shall be assigned and paid to such persons.
Neither shall any other matter be proposed to the decurions nor shall any decree of the decurions be passed until the money in accordance with the conditions of the lease is assigned and paid to the said contractors by decree of the decurions, provided that not less than thirty are present when the said matter is discussed.
Whatever is so decreed, the said duumvirs shall provide that same shall be assigned and paid to the contractor or contractors, provided that they do not pay or assign the same out of that money, which in accordance with this law properly must be given and assigned for those sacrifices are publicly performed in the colony or in any other place. All duumvirs, except those first appointed after this law, during their magistracy at the discretion of the decurions shall celebrate a gladiatorial show or dramatic spectacles to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, and to the gods and the goddesses, or such part of the said shows as shall be possible, during four days, for the greater part of each day, and on the said spectacles and the said show each of the said persons shall expend from his own money not less than 2, sesterces, and from the public money it shall be lawful for each several duumvir to expend a sum not exceeding 2, sesterces, and it shall be lawful for the said persons so to do without prejudice to themselves, always provided that no person shall expend or make assignment of any portion of the money, which in accordance with this law properly shall be given or assigned for those sacrifices which are performed publicly in the or in any other place.
All aediles during their magistracy shall celebrate a gladiatorial show or dramatic spectacles to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, or whatever portion of the said shows shall be possible, during three days, for the greater part of each day, and during one day games in the circus or the forum to Venus, and on the said spectacles and the said show each of the said persons shall expend from his own money not less than sesterces, and from the public fund it shall be lawful for each several aedile to expend sesterces, and a duumvir or a prefect shall provide that the money shall be given and assigned, and it shall be lawful for the aediles to receive the same without prejudice to themselves.
Lex Ursonensis – Brill Reference
Respecting all money presented or brought to the sacred temples under the category of religious offerings and respecting any portion of uursonensis money as remains from the sacrifices performed in accordance with this law in honor uraonensis the god or the goddess, to whom any such temple belongs: No person within the boundaries of the town or the colony or within the area marked round by the plowla shall ursonensie a dead person, or bury, or cremate the same therein, or build therein a monument to a dead person.
If any person acts in contravention of this regulation he shall be condemned to pay to the colonists of the colony Genetiva Julia 5, sesterces and he shall be sued and prosecuted by any person at will for that amount. Any monument so built a duumvir or an aedile led cause to be demolished and if, in contravention of this law, a dead person has ursonensi introduced and placed therein, they shall make the proper expiation.
No person shall construct a new crematorium, where no dead person has been cremated, nearer to the town than half a mile. Any person acting in contravention of this regulation shall be condemned to pay to the colonists of the colony Genetiva Julia 5, sesterces and shall be sued and prosecuted by any person at will for that amount in accordance with this law.
No person shall unroof or demolish or dismantle any building in rusonensis town of the colony Julia, unless he furnishes sureties, at the discretion of the duumvirs, that he has the intention of rebuilding the same, or unless the decurions allow such act by decree, provided that not less than fifty are present when the said matter is discussed.
If any person acts in contravention of this regulation he shall be condemned to pay to the colonists ursoneneis the colony Genetiva Julia the value of the said building and shall be sued and prosecuted by any person at will for that amount in accordance with this law. No person shall possess within the town of the colony Julia pottery works or a tile factory of larger size than to produce tiles per day. If any person possesses such works or ursonensks, the said building and ground shall become the public property of the colony Julia, and any person at will shall have the right to claim such building and any magistrate charged with jurisdiction in the colony Genetiva Julia shall pay without malicious deception into the public funds a sum of money equivalent to the value of the same.
If any duumvir or aedile desires in the public interest to make, ursoneniss dig, to alter, to build, or to pave any roads, dikes, or sewers within the boundaries belonging to the colony Julia, it shall be lawful for the said persons to do the same, provided that no injury is done to private persons. Respecting public roads and footpaths within the boundaries assigned to the colony, all such thoroughfares, roads, and footpaths that exist or shall exist or have existed in the said territories shall be public property.
Respecting all rivers, streams, fountains, lakes, springs, ponds, or marshes within the territory divided among the colonists of this colony: In like manner the persons who own or possess the said land shall have legal right of way to the said waters. In the case of public business in the colony being given to any person by resolution of the decurions: In respect to all clerks of the duumvirs and the aediles of the colony Julia, to be employed in making entry of public money and in writing the accounts of the colonists: As each clerk so takes oath, the said magistrate shall cause him to be entered in the public books.
Clerks failing to take such oath shall not copy the public accounts nor shall they receive the money or the pay customary for such service. Magistrates failing to administer such oath shall be fined 5, sesterces and shall be sued and prosecuted by any person at will for that amount in accordance with this law. Respecting lands or woods or buildings given or assigned to the colonists of the colony Genetiva Julia that they may have public use thereof: Nor, in the case of the said lands and woods having been sold, thereby shall they cease to be the property of the colony Genetiva Julia.
And any person using the produce of the same on the ground of such purchase shall be condemned to pay each year to the colonists of the colony Genetiva Julia sesterces for every juger and shall be sued and prosecuted by any person at will for that amount in accordance with this law.
Respecting any person ursonensls or appointed decurion, augur, or pontiff in the colony Genetiva Julia in accordance with this law: The duumvirs holding office in the said colony shall propose to the decurions concerning the dispatch of public delegations when a majority of the decurions of the said colony are present, and any decree, passed by a majority of those present at that meeting, shall ldx lawful and valid.
In the case of a person elected to discharge a delegation, resolved upon in accordance with this law or by ursonnensis of the decurions passed in accordance with this law, failing to discharge the same: If he fails to furnish such uursonensis, and for every occasion of such failure, he shall be ursojensis to pay to the colonists of this colony 10, sesterces and shall be sued and prosecuted by any person at ursoensis for that amount.
No duumvir appointed or created after the establishment of the colony and no prefect left in charge by a duumvir in accordance with the charter of the colony shall receive or accept, concerning public ground or for public ground, from a contractor, or a leaseholder, or a surety any gift, or present, or remuneration, or any other favor; nor shall he cause any such favor to be bestowed upon himself or upon any of his staff.
Any person acting in contravention of this regulation shall be condemned to pay to the colonists of the urspnensis Genetiva Julia 20, sesterces and shall be sued and prosecuted by any person at will for that amount. No person in this colony shall rusonensis or have jurisdiction, save the duumvirs, or a prefect left in charge by a duumvir, or an aedile, as provided in this law.
Nor shall anyone cause by virtue of such irnperium or authority any person to adjudicate in the said colony, except those persons who properly adjudicate by this law. In the case of recuperators being assigned and failing le give judgment ursnoensis the day commanded: And he shall cause public notice to be served on the witnesses as to the said case, not exceeding twenty persons, being colonists or resident aliens, selected at will by the person who conducts the case.
And he shall provide that the persons on whom ursonenis notice is served and whose names are included in the list of witnesses shall be present at the said trial. And in a proper manner he shall cause anyone, who knows or has head aught of the matters under inquiry, to declare his evidence, after taking oath, provided that not more than twenty persons in all are compelled to give evidence at any one trial.
No person shall be compelled to give evidence against his will if he is related to the party concerned in the said case, as father-in-law, son-in-law, stepfather, stepson, patron, freedman, cousin, or any nearer connection by blood or affinity.
In the case of the duumvir or the prefect, who makes such claim for the colonists, failing to be present: In the case of a private person making the claim, and failing to be present on the proper day for the holding of the court, and not having been excused, when the case comes at the discretion of the duumvir or the prefect, on the ground that one of the aforesaid causes of absence had arisen, ursonemsis, serious illness, or business connected with bail, or jurisdiction, or sacrifice, or funeral in his household, or purificatory rites ensuing thereon, or pex he is prevented lx attending by a magistracy or power conferred by the Roman people: And in respect to such matter: If any decurion of the said colony demands of a duumvir or a prefect that a proposal shall be made to the decurions concerning public les, or fines, or penalties, or concerning public grounds, lands, or buildings, whereby there may properly be made an investigation and an adjudication, then the duumvir or the person charged with jurisdiction, on the first available day, shall consult the decurions on the said matter and shall cause a resolution of the decurions to be made, provided that a majority of the decurions are present when such matter is discussed.
Whatever a majority of the decurions then present determine shall be lawful and valid. No duumvir and no person with the pex of a duumvir in the said colony shall so act, or ufsonensis propose to the decurions, or so cause a decree of the decurions to be made, that any person shall be a patron or shall be adopted as a patron to the colonists of the said colony, save the person invested by the Julian Law with the right to give and to assign lands to the colonists, and the person who established the said colony, together with their children and descendants, except after a resolution of a majority of the decurions ursonesnis, passed by means of voting tablets, not less than fifty being present when the said matter is discussed.
Any person acting in contravention of this regulation shall be condemned to pay 5, sesterces to the colonists of the said colony and shall be sued by any colonist of the said colony at will for that amount. In the case of performance of any public work having been decreed by the decurions of the said colony, a majority of the decurions being present when the said matter is discussed: The said public work by decree of the decurions shall be superintended by the aediles then in office.
They shall provide that the work shall be performed, as the decurions resolve, as long as no labor is required, without his own consent, from any person less than fourteen or more than sixty years of age. Persons possessing a domicile or ursonenssis estate in the said colony or within the boundaries of the said colony but not being colonists of the said colony shall be liable to the same amount of labor as a colonist.
Respecting any public aqueducts brought into the town of the colony Genetiva: Whatever lands a majority of the decurions then present determine, provided that no water is brought through any building not constructed for ursonensie purpose, it shall be usonensis and right to bring an aqueduct through the said lands, and ursonensls person shall do aught to prevent an aqueduct from being so brought.
Ursonensiss the case of any colonist desiring to conduct waste water into his private property and coming before a duumvir and demanding that the matter shall be brought before the decurions: If a majority of the decurions then present resolve that the waste water shall be conducted into private property the said person shall have the right and the power to use the said water in such way, leex that no injury is caused to private individuals.
No person holding the comitia for the election or by-election of magistrates shall accept at the said comitia any person for a tribe, or return ursonesnis order the return of any candidate, to whom any of those uraonensis attaches, whereby it is not proper or lawful for any person within the colony by this law to be nominated or created a decurion or to sit among the decurions.
No duumvir holding an investigation or conducting a trial in accordance with this law, unless such trial is by this law bound to be concluded in one day, shall hold the said investigation or conduct the said trial before the first or after the eleventh hour of the day. The said duumvir also, in respect to the several accusers, shall give to the chief accuser the privilege of making his accusation for four hours and to every subordinate accuser for two hours.
In the case of an accuser conceding a portion of his time to another person: He likewise shall give to the person who concedes a portion of his time to another ursonenis by so much the shorter time for speaking. For whatsoever number of hours in all the whole number of accusers have the privilege of speaking in each several suit he shall give to the defendant or the persons pleading for the defendant the privilege of speaking for twice the said number of hours in ursonenzis suit.
Utsonensis a majority of the decurions present at any meeting determine to draft armed men for the purpose of defending the territories of the colony, it shall be lawful, without prejudice to themselves, for every duumvir or prefect charged with jurisdiction in the colony Genetiva Julia to draft under arms colonists, resident aliens, and “attributed” persons.
And the said duumvir or any person placed in command of such armed force by the duumvir ursonfnsis have the same right and the same power of punishment that belongs to a military tribune of the Roman people in an army of ursondnsis Roman people; and he shall exercise lawfully and properly such right and power without prejudice to himself, provided that all acts performed are in accordance with the decree of a majority udsonensis the decurions present at the said meeting.
Respecting all boundary roads or crossroads, made or marked within the territories of the colony Genetiva, and all boundary ditches within the land, given and assigned by order of Gaius Caesar, dictator and imperator, and by the Antonian Law and by decrees of the Senate and by plebiscites: